Massages for Chronic Pain

Massage Therapy for Chronic Pain It is typically a manual therapy that involves applying pressure to tense areas of the body. Most massages are usually hands on treatment, but some therapists may use elbows, knees, forearms, or even their feet. Different types of massage therapists will focus on areas including fascia, joints, ligaments, lymphatic vessels, muscles, skin, tendons, organs of the gastrointestinal system, or other connective tissues. There are over 80 different type of massage therapy methods (modalities).

 

There are many different types of massage, but typically they all fall into one of two categories.


Rehabilitative massage
– Massages to improve a health condition known as therapeutic, clinical, deep tissue, or medical. Typically, this is practiced in locations such as hospitals, health clinics, and chiropractic offices.

Relaxation massage – This type of massage is focused on improving tense muscles, reducing stress and also providing a relaxing experience. It is typically practiced in spas, resorts and various wellness centers.

 

Northwestern Health Sciences University/What is Massage Therapy? Retrieved from:

https://www.nwhealth.edu/school-of-massage-therapy/massage-therapy-definition/


PCI (Parasitology Center Inc.): Parasite Wiki/Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.parasitetesting.com/Massage

How Massage Helps with Stress

Massage decreases cortisol levels. Cortisol is produced when the body is stressed and it can cause digestive problems, headaches, sleep issues, and weight gain. With massage the body will be more relaxed, and stress will be reduced. Not only can massage therapy help with stress relief, but regular massage sessions over a prolonged period of time can boost energy levels, reduce pain, and stimulate individuals on physical as well as emotional levels (Body & Mind Therapeutic Massage & Day Spa).

 

How Massage Improves Pain & Promotes Healing

Two ways that massage helps with pain are by helping the body to release serotonin (the body’s natural production of anti-pain chemicals), and by improving deep sleep which results in less pain. Massage helps with injuries by increasing the nutrients and oxygen to damaged tissues reducing swelling and stiffness. Additionally, massage releases endorphins, pain killing hormones, into the body. These hormones not only help with healing and pain management, but also feelings of joy and calmness.

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesBack and Neck Pain Reduced with Posture Improvements

The most popular reason for neck and back pain is poor posture. Massage therapy can help the body get back into proper alignment. Massage loosens the tense muscles and relaxes them, and increases flexibility and range of motion in joints. The body may then go back to a healthy posture with no pain.

 

Massage improves Circulation which has Many Benefits!

With regular massage treatments circulation can be improved. Massage helps damaged, tense, and stiff muscles receive a rich supply of blood to bring about healing, and new blood flows into tissues. In addition, blood is moved through the parts of the body that are damaged or congested. Also, new blood flows into tissues. Furthermore, the squeezing, twisting, and pulling action of the massage technique also removes lactic acid from the muscle tissues (Body & Mind Therapeutic Massage & Day Spa). It then improves lymph fluid circulation (moving waste products away from internal organs and muscles) creating lower blood pressure and better overall function of the body.

 

Massage is a Great Complementary Treatment

It may also be used in conjunction with other treatments to help improve the effectiveness of those treatments. It is becoming more recognized in the medical community as an acceptable treatment option for various health issues.

 

Other benefits include:

  • Back pain improvementsChronic Pain Resources
  • Balance improvements for older adults
  • Blood pressure improvements (reducing risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, and so on)
  • Blood flow increases
  • Cardiovascular health improves
  • Circulation improvements
  • Depression improvements
  • Endorphin levels increase
  • Exercise performance improves
  • Headaches improvements
  • Insomnia lessened
  • Mood improvements
  • Neck pain improvements
  • Range of motion increased

Massage Envy/Massage Therapy Manages Pain of Chronic Conditions. Retrieved from:

https://www.massageenvy.com/massage/massage-benefits/manage-pain-of-chronic-conditions/

 

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine/Massage Therapy and Chronic Conditions. Retrieved from:

https://www.pacificcollege.edu/news/blog/2014/12/02/massage-therapy-and-chronic-conditions

 

Mayo Clinic. Painscale/Use These Types of Massage for Chronic Pain. Retrieved from:

https://www.painscale.com/article/use-these-types-of-massage-for-chronic-pain

 

Acupuncture Massage College/History of Massage Therapy | AMC Massage Therapy School | Miami. (2018, January 4). Retrieved from: https://www.amcollege.edu/blog/history-of-massage-therapy-amc-miami

 

Body & Mind Therapeutic Massage & Day Spa/7 Benefits of Massage Therapy. Retrieved from:

http://www.body-mindmassage.com/7-benefits-of-massage-therapy/

Chronic Pain ResourcesAcupressure

 

It works by stimulating energy in the body by pressing on certain points. For pain relief sustained pressure is applied using fingers, hands, and other devices on vital points for 1-3 minutes. It stimulates the natural pain relievers in the body.

 

Aromatherapy Massage

 

Aromatherapy is actually a type of Swedish massage using gentle pressure, and essential oils added to massage oils. Essential oils are often diffused along with being massaged into the skin. This is typically a full body massage, but could be focused on just the back, shoulders and head. Different essential oils can address specific health issues, but typically a therapist will just use a blend that promotes relaxation, or energy. An aromatherapy massage is great for health conditions such as headaches, digestive issues, back pain, and insomnia. With aromatherapy massage it is important to check that you are not allergic to any of the plants that are used for the essential oils. This massage is applied without clothing, but underwear is optional. It is usually 60-90 minutes long.

 

Ayurveda Massage

This type of massage is not only focused on relaxation, but also stress release and letting go of emotional blockages. It helps to create a balance of mind, body, and spirit.

Ayurveda is heavy on the use of essential oils and they are often infused with herbs. There are different types kneading, strokes, and pressures, which can help with the process of balancing the doshas. One type of Ayurvedic massage therapy is Marna, which focuses on stimulating the flow of life energy (prana) by kneading different points and channels of the body (Copper H20). It is different from the typical Swedish massage because of the heavy use of oils, and focus on energy points rather than manipulating muscles.

There is also a type of treatment called Shirodhara, where warm herb-infused oils are poured over the forehead in a rhythmic, smooth flow. Dr. Tummala, owner of Trinergy Center for Integrative Psychiatry an Ayurveda clinic (who is from India), says this procedure stimulates the "third eye center," also called the "Ajna Chakra" or the pineal gland, and is thought to enhance relaxation and relieve insomnia through the hypothesized release of melatonin. Shirodhara can also enhance one's sense of intuition through its stimulation of the "Ajna Chakra"

 

Cupping Therapy

Cupping originates from China, but today is a treatment worldwide, where a practitioner places special cups on a person's skin that create suction to facilitate healing. It helps with blood circulation in the localized area. It is a safe and noninvasive technique that helps with various health problems. It is commonly used for back problems and other general aches and pains. People get it for many purposes, including to help with pain, inflammation, blood flow, relaxation and well-being, and as a type of deep-tissue massage. (WebMD)


Craniosacral Therapy

 

Craniosacral Therapy, also called cranial osteopathy and cranial therapy, is a manual, non-invasive therapy using gentle hand pressure to manipulate the skeleton and connective tissues, typically the head, skull, and sacrum (the large triangular bone at the base of the spinal column). 

 

Deep Tissue Massage

 

This type of massage therapy centers on realigning the deepest layers of muscles and connective tissue removing muscle knots. It is used for chronic aches and pain and contracted areas such as a stiff neck and upper back, low back pain, leg muscle tightness, and sore shoulders (Healthline, 2018). This is similar to traditional massage therapy, except with slower stokes and deeper finger pressure putting friction against the grain of the muscles. Deep Tissue Massage focuses on areas of tension and pain reaching beneath muscles and fascia. This can help with chronic muscle problems, posture problems, anxiety, soreness, imbalance, or an injury. This massage typically lasts anywhere from 60 to 90 minutes. Even though this massage is a bit more intense, it should not cause you any pain. Other health conditions it may help with include tennis elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome and osteoarthritis.

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesHot Stone Massage

This type of massage involves the specific placement of smooth, water-heated stones on the body, or the therapist may hold them and use them as tools to massage tight muscles. Hot stone massage therapy melts away tension, eases muscle stiffness and increases circulation and metabolism (Healthline, 2018). The stones used are volcanic rock called basalt, because they retain heat the best. This massage helps with deeper relaxation, massaging deeper muscle layers and increasing blood flow throughout the body. This treatment is around 60 to 90 minutes long. Some health conditions hot stone massage may not be the best fit for include high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, varicose veins, or a person taking blood-thinning medication.

 

Lymph Drainage Therapy

 

This is a light pressure massage that promotes movement of lymph fluid. This complements treatment of auto-immune disorders, cancer treatments, surgery, and contributes to wellness through improved immune response (John Hopkins Medicine).

 

Reflexology

Reflexology is a therapeutic method of relieving pain by stimulating predefined pressure points on the feet and hands. Controlled pressure on these points alleviates the source of the discomfort. This is great for improving and preventing illnesses, along with stress release and injuries. Sessions are typically 30 to 60 minutes long.

 

Reiki Massage

 

Reiki massage uses a light touch. It is said to help with “Universal Life Energy” which flows through us and is what causes us to be alive. It is a Japanese technique that promotes both emotional and physical healing and relaxation.

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesShiatsu Massage (Japanese massage)

 

Shiatsu involves massaging specific points on the full body using pressing, tapping, soothing, kneading, and stretching techniques, in order to relieve tension and pain. Therapists may also use a rhythmic or pulsing pressure. This massage is similar to acupressure except practitioners don’t use their full hands to apply pressure, with Shiatsu they use their fingers and palms. It helps with pain relief, muscle tension, stress, depression, anxiety, and mood improvements. This is a massage where you may remain fully clothed. This massage will take 60-90 minutes.

 

Swedish Massage

 

This is the most popular form of massage. This is considered the standard type of massage for clinics, gyms, spas, and wellness centers. If it is unspecified what type of massage you are receiving it is probably Swedish. Swedish massage follows the Western principles of physiology and anatomy, as opposed to the energy-centric massages more popular with Asians. Swedish massage is a gentle, relaxing massage using general strokes and then specific strokes for problematic areas. Therapists will often use massage oils or lotions to enhance the effects of the massage. It can be a good form of massage for both acute and chronic pain sufferers. There are five basic strokes in Swedish massage therapy: effleurage (long smooth strokes), petrissage (kneading, rolling, and lifting), friction (wringing or small circular movements), tapotement (percussion), and vibration (rocking and shaking movements) (verywell health, 2018).

 

Thai Massage

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesThis is a more active type of massage that involves working the whole body. Pulsing or rhythmic pressure is used. The rhythmic compression along the body’s energy lines help with improving flexibility, energy levels, circulation, and reducing pain and stress. Thai massage uses some of the same movements used in yoga stretching. The therapist will move you and twist you into various positions, and apply firm pressure with fingers and palms to different areas of the body. Thai is often used for back pain, balance problems and migraine symptoms. Sessions last 60-90 minutes. This massage treatment is done fully clothed.

 

Trigger Point Massage (Neuromuscular Massage)

 

Sometimes areas of tightness in the muscle tissues, known as trigger points, can cause pain in other parts of the body (Healthline, 2018). Like a tight muscle in a person’s back may cause pain in their neck. So when the massage therapist relieves the pain in these points, it may reduce pain in the painful areas of the body. This type of massage uses broad, flowing strokes which are gentle, but also strong deep pressure to flush lactic acid out of muscles. Trigger Point Massage will focus on the whole body, but place specific attention on the tense areas of the body. This massage type is great for chronic pain and injuries. It usually takes anywhere from 60-90 minutes. Light clothing can be worn for this massage.

 

Wong, Cathy. (2018, November 28). verywell health/Top 9 Most Popular Types of Massage. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/most-popular-types-of-massage-89741

 

Mayo Clinic. Painscale/Use These Types of Massage for Chronic Pain. Retrieved from:

https://www.painscale.com/article/use-these-types-of-massage-for-chronic-pain

 

John Hopkins Medicine/Therapeutic Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/integrative_medicine_digestive_center/services/therapeutic_massage.html

 

Cronkleton, Emily. (2018, June 20). Healthline/What are the Different Types of Massages?. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/types-of-massage

If you have any concerns about going to a massage therapist with your specific health issue, it is advised to check with your health practitioner in advance. Massage therapy shouldn’t be a replacement for conventional care or cause you to delay seeing a health care provider for a serious health condition. Massage therapy is not the right treatment for everyone, and may not be safe for certain health conditions. If you are pregnant check with your doctor first before receiving a massage. Also, if you have a bleeding distortedly, low blood platelet counts or take blood thinners, it might not be safe to get a massage.

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesUsually side effects are just a bit of soreness or malaise, if you experience anything worse than that, you should change up your treatment plan.

 

Cautions Regarding Deep Tissue Massage & Being Safe


Deep tissue massage done too intensely could aggravate someone’s ongoing pain in their body, instead of helping. If you have chronic pain or any pressing health issues (vertigo, injury not fully healed, migraines, sciatica, etc.) it is important to let your massage therapist know in advance. Additionally, let them know if you are taking any pharmaceutical drugs, because massage could reduce or enhance the effect of those drugs. Another good recommendation would be to start off with a gentle massage to see how your body responds. It is also advised to choose a massage therapist that typically works with people who suffer from ongoing illnesses or injuries, who work at a healthcare related practice vs a spa or resort.

 

Occasionally it causes new physical injuries, usually just minor bruises and nerve lesions, but sometimes worse: there’s a small but serious risk of spinal injury or stroke with any neck manipulation (PainScience.com). Serious soreness or a sickness feeling could be rhabdomyolysis, when too much protein enters the bloodstream from crushed muscle. Too intense of a massage for someone who already has a lot of pain could actually have long-term pain effects. So it is very important to find a massage therapist that listens to your needs, and if they are too intense then leave before they can do any permanent damage. An intense massage could change pain sensitivity itself.

 

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health/Massage Therapy for Health Purposes. Retrieved from:

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/massage/massageintroduction.htm

 

Ingraham, Paul. (2018, July 18). PainScience.com/Massage Therapy Side Effects. Retrieved from:

https://www.painscience.com/articles/massage-therapy-side-effects.php

Some Chronic Health Conditions Massage May Help with Include:

  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis & Osteoarthritis
  • Asthma & Bronchitis
  • Back, Neck, Shoulder, Elbow, & Knee Pain
  • Burn Injuries
  • Bursitis
  • Carpal Tunnel SyndromeChronic Pain Resources
  • Chemotherapy Recovery
  • Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome (CMPS)
  • Common Cold and Flu
  • Dementia
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Frozen Shoulder
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Insomnia
  • Menstrual Cramping
  • Muscle Sprains and Strains
  • Myofascial Pain Syndrome
  • Premenstrual Syndrome
  • Rotator Cuff Syndrome
  • Sciatica
  • Sports Injuries
  • Tennis Elbow

Massage Works Los Gatos/20 Medical Conditions Massage Therapy Can Help. (2016, October 21). Retrieved from:

http://massageworkslosgatos.com/uncategorized/20-medical-conditions-massage-therapy-can-help/

 

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine/Massage Therapy and Chronic Conditions. Retrieved from:

https://www.pacificcollege.edu/news/blog/2014/12/02/massage-therapy-and-chronic-conditions

 

American Massage Therapy Association/Starting a Career in Massage Therapy: What You Need to Know/25 Reasons to Get a Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.amtamassage.org/professional_development/starting.html

Schools and programs should be accredited by the United States Department of Education. The massage therapy program will require anywhere from 300 to 1,000 hours of training, which can take up to two years. Once this training is completed, it is required to pass an entry-level massage therapist licensing exam called the MBLEx (Massage and Bodywork Licensing Exam). This exam is administered by the Federation of State Massage Therapy Boards. After passing the exam, some states will have licensing requirements, so extra steps maybe required such as continuing education to practice. Most states do regulate massage and many are working toward state regulations/licensing.

 

Board Certification
Board Certification is an even higher level of achievement that Massage Therapists can obtain from the National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (NCBTMB). This is the highest voluntary credential available to massage therapists. It requires extra education, training, experience, and passing an examination to earn this certification. Therapists who have this designation should have the letters “BCTMB” after their name.

 

American Massage Therapy Association/Starting a Career in Massage Therapy: What You Need to Know/25 Reasons to Get a Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.amtamassage.org/professional_development/starting.html

 

natural healers/Massage Therapist Job Description: What You’ll Do/History of Massage Therapy. Retrieved from: https://www.naturalhealers.com/massage-therapy/job-description/

China’s Influence on Massage

 

From 2700 BCE (around 4,700 years ago) the first known record in China is “The Yellow Emperor’s Classic Book of Internal Medicine.” It was first published in English in 1949. Since then, it has become a primary textbook for teaching massage therapy, along with other alternative medicine including acupuncture, acupressure and herbology. The Chinese believed in diseases and illnesses occurring from a deficiency or imbalance in energy in the meridians or pathways in the body, which massage helped improve.

 

Egypt’s Influence on Massage

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesRecords in Egypt date back to 2500 BCE with tomb paintings showing people kneading others, representing massage therapy as a medication treatment. Egyptians are also the developers of reflexology from around 2500 BCE.

 

India’s Influence on Massage

 

The first known written massage therapy traditions come from India between 1500 and 500 BCE, but practice may have actually originated around 3000 BCE or earlier (All Allied Health Schools). Massage therapy was popular as a form of Ayurveda medicine. Ayurveda is a popular form of holistic medicine in India.

 

Japanese’s Influence on Massage


Japanese monks developed massage therapy techniques through examining traditional Chinese medicine. They created their own form of traditional Japanese massage known as Anma, which eventually became Shiatsu.

 

Greek’s Influence on Massage


Massage therapy was also influenced by the Greeks who had special techniques to improve “knots” in muscle tissue with therapeutic rubbing, which is still used today mostly by Sports Massage Therapists. Hippocrates, father of modern medicine, initiated friction and rubbing as a form of healing for injuries.

 

Swedish Influence on Massage

 

The Swedish massage was founded in the early 1800s by Swedish doctor, gymnast and educator Per Henril Ling. It was developed from his “Swedish Movement System.” 

 

Massage Therapy in the United States


In the United States, massage therapy started off as a luxury form of wellness for the wealthy. It later became associated with sex trade, but eventually was accepted in the late half of the 20th century as a form of natural healing. Massage therapists today use a variety of techniques from ancient cultures.

 

Today the most common types of massage practiced in the western hemisphere are Swedish massage and the Japanese massage practice of Shiatsu (All Allied Health Schools). Massage therapy is also practiced around the world today, as a well-accepted holistic healing method.

 

natural healers/Massage Therapist Job Description: What You’ll Do/History of Massage Therapy. Retrieved from: https://www.naturalhealers.com/massage-therapy/job-description/

 

All Allied Health Schools/History of Massage Therapy & How It Evolved. Retrieved from:

https://www.allalliedhealthschools.com/massage-therapist/massage-therapy-history/

 

American Massage Therapy Association/Starting a Career in Massage Therapy: What You Need to Know/25 Reasons to Get a Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.amtamassage.org/professional_development/starting.html

If you are just seeking out a massage therapist for relaxation then the best place to go for a massage would be a spa, resort, fitness center, or wellness center. If you need a massage therapist to help with ongoing pain or an injury, then you may want to try a hospital, health clinic, rehabilitation center, or possibly a chiropractic office. A physical therapist could also be very helpful in not only providing massage, but other necessary treatments for recovery from an injury or managing ongoing pain. There are also massage therapists who own their own private practices. Some may offer a variety of massage techniques; others may specialize in specific types of massage.

 

Chronic Pain ResourcesThere are several different directories you can use to find a massage therapist.

 

To find a massage therapist in America take a look at:

American Massage Therapy Association 

Associated Massage Therapy Association 

Massage Book

Massage Finder

 

Finding a Good Therapist
Make sure you also take a look at the “Education of a Massage Therapist” to help in evaluating whether the therapist you choose possesses the proper education or certifications. Sometimes massage therapy can be covered under insurance. So check with your insurance provider to see what might be covered under your plan.

 

Cronkleton, Emily. (2018, June 20).  Healthline/What are the Different Types of Massages?. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/types-of-massage

 

American Massage Therapy Association/Starting a Career in Massage Therapy: What You Need to Know/25 Reasons to Get a Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.amtamassage.org/professional_development/starting.html

Then, the therapist will usually ask a few questions possibly about health history, or maybe just pain areas. Let them know if you are taking any pharmaceutical drugs, because massage could reduce or enhance the effect of those drugs. Make sure to let the therapist know what areas you want to focus on, along with any areas to avoid and what level of pressure you prefer. All information provided should be confidential.

 

Be sure to notify the massage therapist if there is any discomfort during the massage. It is their job is to make their patients comfortable, and improve a health condition not hurt it. Typically massage tables will have a hole for your head, you will either lie on your back or stomach and have a towel or sheet covering you. Some therapists will play music, but you can ask for silence or possibly bring your own. When receiving a massage, you want to focus on relaxing your muscles and breathing. Tensing muscles will be counterproductive.    

 

University of Minnesota: Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing/What Can I Expect in a First Massage Therapy Visit? Retrieved from: https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/massage-therapy/what-can-i-expect-first-massage-theraphy-visit

Northwestern Health Sciences University/What is Massage Therapy? Retrieved from:

https://www.nwhealth.edu/school-of-massage-therapy/massage-therapy-definition/

 

Massage Works Los Gatos/20 Medical Conditions Massage Therapy Can Help. (2016, October 21). Retrieved from:

http://massageworkslosgatos.com/uncategorized/20-medical-conditions-massage-therapy-can-help/

 

Wong, Cathy. (2018, November 28). verywell health/Top 9 Most Popular Types of Massage. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/most-popular-types-of-massage-89741

 

Ingraham, Paul. (2018, July 18). PainScience.com/Massage Therapy Side Effects. Retrieved from:

https://www.painscience.com/articles/massage-therapy-side-effects.php

 

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health/Massage Therapy for Health Purposes. Retrieved from:

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/massage/massageintroduction.htm

 

John Hopkins Medicine/Therapeutic Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/integrative_medicine_digestive_center/services/therapeutic_massage.html

 

Cronkleton, Emily. (2018, June 20).  Healthline/What are the Different Types of Massages?. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/types-of-massage

 

Massage Envy/Massage Therapy Manages Pain of Chronic Conditions. Retrieved from:

https://www.massageenvy.com/massage/massage-benefits/manage-pain-of-chronic-conditions/

 

Pacific College of Oriental Medicine/Massage Therapy and Chronic Conditions. Retrieved from:

https://www.pacificcollege.edu/news/blog/2014/12/02/massage-therapy-and-chronic-conditions

 

Mayo Clinic. Painscale/Use These Types of Massage for Chronic Pain. Retrieved from:

https://www.painscale.com/article/use-these-types-of-massage-for-chronic-pain

 

American Massage Therapy Association/Starting a Career in Massage Therapy: What You Need to Know/25 Reasons to Get a Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.amtamassage.org/professional_development/starting.html

 

natural healers/Massage Therapist Job Description: What You’ll Do/History of Massage Therapy. Retrieved from: https://www.naturalhealers.com/massage-therapy/job-description/

 

Acupuncture Massage College/History of Massage Therapy | AMC Massage Therapy School | Miami. (2018, January 4). Retrieved from: https://www.amcollege.edu/blog/history-of-massage-therapy-amc-miami

 

All Allied Health Schools/History of Massage Therapy & How It Evolved. Retrieved from:

https://www.allalliedhealthschools.com/massage-therapist/massage-therapy-history/

 

Body & Mind Therapeutic Massage & Day Spa/7 Benefits of Massage Therapy. Retrieved from:

http://www.body-mindmassage.com/7-benefits-of-massage-therapy/

 

University of Minnesota: Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing/What Can I Expect in a First Massage Therapy Visit? Retrieved from: https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/massage-therapy/what-can-i-expect-first-massage-theraphy-visit

 

PCI (Parasitology Center Inc.): Parasite Wiki/Massage. Retrieved from:

https://www.parasitetesting.com/Massage