Trauma Therapist

 

A trauma therapist can be a psychologist, licensed mental health counselor, or even a social worker. They are typically referred to as a trauma-informed therapist. Some trauma therapists may specialize in working with just children, teens, adults, just veterans, etc.

What is a Traumatic Event?A trauma therapist is a licensed mental health professional who has had explicit training, supervision, and clinical experience working directly, and perhaps almost exclusively, with trauma

It basically refers to an event perceived by an individual as a threat to sanity, the integrity of the body, and life (Fader, 2020). Trauma occurs when a person is unable to cope with an experience or an event, and it stays with them either unconsciously or consciously. The person is deeply distressed and can’t cope, or handle the emotions that were involved. Lasting responses to trauma may include anger, anxiety, denial, depression, flashbacks, sleep problems, and physical stress symptoms. Trauma can fade within a few months or can last years or decades. When the effects of trauma don’t disappear it is usually called PTSD.

 

How an event affects an individual depends on many factors, including characteristics of the individual, the types and characteristics of the event(s), developmental processes, the meaning of the trauma, and sociocultural factors (Bruhin, 2018).

 

It is not your fault for feeling the way you do. The trauma is not your fault, and the struggles and mental health battles you deal with, are not your fault either.

 


 

Healthline/Traumatic Events? Retrieved from:

https://www.healthline.com/health/traumatic-events#responses-to-trauma

 

Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/

 

Bruhin, Matthew. (2018, May 29). APEX Recovery Rehab/What is Trauma Focused Therapy? Retrieved from: https://apex.rehab/2018/05/29/what-is-trauma-focused-therapy/

 

Psychology Today/Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/trauma-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy

 

Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from:

https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist

It is super important to know the difference between working with a psychologist or counselor that works with trauma vs. a certified trauma therapist. Anyone can call themselves a trauma therapist, there are no real regulations on this. Many therapists will advertise they work with trauma as just another one of their services. However, if they don’t specialize in trauma therapy then they don’t have the proper training to really help trauma patients, and could even do more harm than good.

 

Working with trauma is a highly specialized area of psychological practice, which is why it is important you seek treatment from a trained and experienced trauma psychologist or therapist (Psychology Today, 2018). Even though some therapists may have had the experience working with a couple of trauma cases, or may have listened to trauma patients share their experience, this in no way gives them an understanding of trauma and the proper methods for treatment.

 

Certified trauma therapists have special training. They have practiced, refined, tested methods, and use treatments specifically related to trauma on a regular basis. They can identify trauma responses, see struggles a person is going through, know the right questions to ask, understand a person’s behaviors, and see symptoms you might not even recognize you have. Trauma therapists have the knowledge and experience to understand how trauma can or has changed a person over time.


 

 

Psychology Today/Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy/Working with a Real Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/trauma-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy

 

Brickel MA, LMFT, Robyn E. (2018, February 23). Brickel & Associates, LLC/Why You Need a Trauma-Informed Therapist, Even if You Don’t Think You Have TRAUMA. Retrieved from:

https://brickelandassociates.com/need-trauma-informed-therapist/

Types of Trauma: Dissociation, Acute, Chronic and Complex

There are different types of trauma such as dissociation trauma, acute, chronic, and complex trauma. Dissociation trauma is where you continue to ignore the trauma. With acute trauma you are dealing with one single event, chronic is from repeated abuse or domestic violence over a long stretch of time (possibly years), and complex is coping with a series of traumatic events. All of these traumatic experiences are real and shouldn’t be ignored. Also, everyone experiences trauma differently. Therefore, multiple people can have the same traumatic experience but have different reactions. It can take longer for some people to heal, but that’s okay.

Possible Causes of TraumaTrauma therapists may work with people of all ages struggling with issues such as emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual assault survivors, mental illness, accident victims, sudden death of a loved one, natural disaster experiences, chronic illness/pain or witnessing mass violence.

Trauma therapists may work with people of all ages struggling with issues such as emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual assault survivors, mental illness, accident victims, the sudden death of a loved one, natural disaster experiences, chronic illness/pain, or witnessing mass violence. But, a person’s trauma does not have to fit into one of these categories, it could be anything that has created a deep wound in someone.

Symptoms of Trauma

Some people may not even consider themselves trauma sufferers or understand that they have suffered through trauma.

 

A trauma-informed therapist can help someone to safely understand their trauma history and how they have learned to cope because of it. A traumatic experience can cause someone to feel lost, emotionally numb, and unsafe. You might have trouble sleeping, be unable to focus on day-to-day tasks, have obsessive thoughts, an eating disorder, deal with post-traumatic stress, or suffer from anxiety or depression. It might feel impossible to process that experience and believe that you can move past it and heal. But, there is hope! It is very possible to heal and get back to a normal life with the right therapist.

 


 

 Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/


Brickel MA, LMFT, Robyn E. (2018, February 23). Brickel & Associates, LLC/Why You Need a Trauma-Informed Therapist, Even if You Don’t Think You Have TRAUMA. Retrieved from: https://brickelandassociates.com/need-trauma-informed-therapist/

 

Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from:

https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist

Trauma treatment can help people to handle nightmares related to their trauma, flashbacks, panic attacks, fits of rage, and more. A therapist will help figure out the effects on the body, determine triggers, and provide coping mechanisms. You might suffer from a “fight or flight” response to specific scenarios and have a physical or emotional reaction. You experience concern for your safety because the brain remembers the trauma. Areas of your brain actually change due to trauma. In people with PTSD, you'll see that on brain scans, their brains are lit up at times because they're hypervigilant, overly aware, and are possibly in a fight, flight, or freeze mode because they believe there's a threat (Fader, 2020). However, the brains are malleable so the brain is capable of change. Our brains can re-alter in positive ways it just takes the right tools. This concept is referred to as neuroplasticity.

 

Studies have found that between 77% and 100% of patients who attend regular, customized trauma therapy sessions will see a reduction in their symptoms (Mission Harbor, 2020).

 

Other things to help while working with a trauma-informed therapist:

  • Don’t ignore feelings and avoid them. Your feelings will help you to come to terms with the traumatic experience.
  • Avoid turning to alcohol and drugs
  • Keep to a routine
  • Lean on the family for support
  • Consider a support group
  • Try deep breathing. For this exercise, you can inhale for four seconds, hold for two more seconds, and finally exhale in six to eight counts (Fader, 2020).
  • Consider a weighted blanket to help with a sense of security
  • Laugh
  • Practice Self Care: exercise, practice mindfulness, get proper sleep, eat a balanced diet, manage stress with enjoyable activities, and spend time with friends/family, or possibly share your trauma with trusted loved ones.

Don’t Avoid Your Trauma
When trauma is unaddressed it can not only cause negative thoughts, but also develop into a mental health condition, or even contribute to becoming chronically sick. 

 


Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from:

https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist

 

Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/

Mission Harbor BEHAVIORAL HEALTH/How Does Trauma Therapy Work? Retrieved from: https://sbtreatment.com/program/therapies/trauma-therapy/

 

Leonard, Jayne. (2020, June 3). MEDICALNEWSTODAY/What is Trauma? What to Know. Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/trauma#treatment

A trauma therapist will not be making you share your traumatic experience in detail at the first appointment. If they do, it is recommended to find a new one. Many people end up with greater anxiety or depression if asked to share their experience in detail without first learning some tools to cope, and establishing a sense of safety.

 

When a therapist has an authentically trauma-informed approach (Brickel, 2018):

  • They will talk about safety from the beginning: physical safety, emotional safety, and creating a safe environment where healing can occur.
  • They will talk about self-care, boundaries, grounding, and resourcing.
  • Their approach recognizes that your behavior isn’t who you are—rather that it makes sense based on your history. It is what happened to you, not who you are!
  • They work to understand your coping skills, how you survived your experiences, and help you build new healthy coping skills.
  • They move at a pace you’re comfortable with, collaborating with you along the way, and work to keep you within your window of tolerance of emotions.

A trauma-informed therapist will work to address issues at the deepest level in order to create long-term changes. They will get to know a person’s triggers, and help them learn strategies to cope. Their goal is to help a person feel empowered vs. worried, stressed, anxious, etc. They have a toolbox of creative strategies, activities, and different forms of trauma therapy to create a customized treatment for an individual.

A therapist who is trauma-informed knows that the mind and body of a person with unhealed trauma are functioning in an altered way (Brickel, 2018). By feeling too much emotion a person may experience hyperarousal and become closed off or stop feeling anything at all. 


 

Brickel MA, LMFT, Robyn E. (2018, February 23). Brickel & Associates, LLC/Why You Need a Trauma-Informed Therapist, Even if You Don’t Think You Have TRAUMA. Retrieved from:

https://brickelandassociates.com/need-trauma-informed-therapist/


Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/


CENTER FOR CHILD TRAUMA ASSESSMENT, SERVICES and INTERVENTIONS: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Retrieved from:

http://cctasi.northwestern.edu/family/trauma-focused-therapy/

Trauma-Focused Therapy (Also Called: Trauma-Focused Interventions)

Trauma-Focused Therapy is made up of many different therapies. While there are numerous therapy approaches, the purpose of all trauma-focused therapy is to integrate the traumatic event into your life, not subtract it (Dillmann PsyD, 2011). Trauma-focused therapy is often used for children to help them to handle their emotions and process memories associated with their trauma. This approach recognizes how the trauma affects a child’s behaviors, physical, mental and emotional wellbeing.

Evidence-Based Trauma Treatments

Trauma therapists should have experience with EBT’s (Evidence-Based Trauma Treatments) including CPT (Cognitive Processing Therapy), EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), and PE (Prolonged Exposure). Ideally, they are trained in all three, but at least one is necessary. These have been tested and researched to be some of the most effective treatments for people suffering from trauma.

 

Who do they help? These treatments are great for teens and adults, but might not be the best choice for children.

 

There are many different types of therapy that focus specifically on helping people cope with trauma. In addition, there is also certain therapies your therapist should be utilizing based on the type of trauma you are struggling with. Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD)

This therapy is said to create results sooner than psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. This form of therapy may involve a physical movement such as hand tapping, following a moving light, or eye movements while explaining the traumatic event or current pain. You learn to refocus on certain thoughts and realize the strength and power you possess for surviving through it. The purpose of EMDR is to help an individual change the feelings, sounds, and images that are remembered when they think of the traumatic event (Psychology School Guide, 2020). This is supposedly a very effective treatment for trauma. This treatment consists of eight different steps or phases.

 

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)

With this therapy, you will evaluate thoughts and beliefs that occur as a result of the trauma. Strategies are taught how to modify thoughts that are negative and incorrect and create more positive thoughts. Sometimes it may involve writing down your experiences. It is really helpful for people who struggle with PTSD.

 

Prolonged Exposure (PE)

This therapy is used specifically for people with PTSD who have suffered from trauma. If a person has been avoiding things or has environmental triggers, this therapy helps with those scenarios. It helps a person to separate safety from danger. It could involve speaking about the trauma, dealing with thoughts, feelings, or related objects. Prolonged exposure might also involve writing down experiences, reading experiences out loud, and listing things that are triggers. 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy & Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

If a therapist is primarily using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), then they don’t have the expertise to really help. However, sometimes talk therapy can be somewhat helpful to reduce some of the pain, stress, or just help a person to cope.

 

This is a form of therapy called Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TFCBT), where you share your experience and the therapist will help you to evaluate the thoughts and feelings you have. Then, they provide different ways of changing thoughts to develop healthier patterns of thinking about the trauma. This will be more effective than CBT.

 

If a therapist is primarily using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), then they don’t have the expertise to really help. However, sometimes talk therapy can be somewhat helpful to reduce some of the pain, stress, or just help a person to cope. Who does it help?
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral therapy is usually used for people who have suffered from trauma early in their life and may suffer from PTSD, depression, anxiety, and other mental health disorders. Often times this therapy is used for children. However, people suffering from serious substance-abuse or thoughts of suicide would want to start with a therapy such as dialectical behavior therapy. TFCBT would also not be the best choice for war veterans.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy works to help people with conflict occurring unconsciously. Mental changes can occur in childhood due to chronic trauma or a traumatic event in childhood. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy places a strong focus on the effects of interpersonal relationships, how trauma has impacted who a person is, and how trauma has affected a person’s life.

 

This therapy involves sharing all thoughts, emotions, struggles, and details of the trauma with the therapist. The therapist can then find the root of the problems, discover which things are specifically preventing a person from copying, and find resolutions. A person can be stuck on a certain aspect of the trauma experience that prevents the processing and integration of the trauma.  

 

Who does it help?
People who have experienced trauma(s) in childhood.

Hypnotherapy

Hypnosis is usually considered an aid to psychotherapy (counseling or therapy), because the hypnotic state allows people to explore painful thoughts, feelings, and memories they might have hidden from their conscious minds (WebMD). Hypnosis is usually considered an aid to psychotherapy (counseling or therapy) because the hypnotic state allows people to explore painful thoughts, feelings, and memories they might have hidden from their conscious minds (WebMD). A person is able to focus more on specific thoughts or tasks without being distracted by anything happening around them. 

Exposure Therapy

This form of therapy is exactly what the name implies, a person is exposed to what they fear (what triggers their trauma) in a safe way. This might be facing memories, and/or dealing with a place or things that trigger the trauma without the feared consequences. Slowly the person becomes less fearful and the negative emotions dissipate.

 

There are various forms of exposure therapy (Dillmann PsyD, 2011):

  • Imaginal exposure: An individual imagines the feared event as vividly as possible.
  • In vivo exposure: The exposure occurs in the therapy.
  • Systematic desensitization: The individual is exposed to successively more fear-inducing situations. This exposure is paired with relaxation.

There is also Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) which helps people to more effectively manage stress and anxiety with relaxation training.

 

Who does it help? This treatment is great for those who suffer from PTSD.

Narrative Exposure Therapy

This therapy is often used for people with complex or multiple traumas. This treatment helps individuals establish a coherent life narrative in which to contextualize traumatic experiences (American Psychological Association, 2017). Creating a narrative of a person’s life helps the traumatic experience to be refined and understood. By reflecting on their entire life without signaling out just one traumatic event, they can start to better understand who they are.

 

Who does it help? This treatment is great for those who suffer from PTSD.

Somatic or Body-Based Therapies

These therapies are helpful for processing trauma for both the mind and body. They include somatic experiencing, sensorimotor psychotherapy, acupoint stimulation, and touch therapies. But, right now there is a lack of evidence as to how successful they are in comparison to therapies like CBT and EDMR.

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

This therapy is often used after a person has just survived a traumatic experience such as a terrorist attack or mass shooting. Evidence has shown it to not be very effective, and other treatments should be utilized. 

Family, Couples, and Group Therapy

Integrating some of the different therapies from above, therapy might not always be done alone. Family therapy may be beneficial if more than one family member has been affected by the same traumatic event. Integrating some of the different therapies from above, therapy might not always be done alone. Family therapy may be beneficial if more than one family member has been affected by the same traumatic event. Then, there are also couples therapy that helps a significant other to understand their partner’s trauma.

 

Lastly, there is group therapy which may be led by peers or a therapist. There are different group therapies based on where a person is on their journey to healing.

 

Group Therapies Include (Dillmann PsyD, 2011)

  • Safety/victim phase: Choose a group focused on self-care and coping skills
  • Remembering and mourning/survivor phase: Pick a group focused on telling the trauma story.
  • Reconnection/thriver phase: Join a group that aims to create a connection with people.
  • Educational groups are appropriate during all phases

For people with PTSD the APA specifically recommend (Formichella, 2020):

  • Brief eclectic psychotherapy
  • Cognitive processing therapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Cognitive therapy
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
  • Narrative exposure therapy
  • Prolonged exposure 

 

Dillmann PsyD, Susanne. (2011, March 9). GoodTherapy/Common Therapy Approaches to Help You Heal from Trauma. Retrieved from: https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/common-therapy-approaches-to-help-you-heal-from-trauma

 

Barbash Ph.D., Elyssa. (2019, May 1). Psychology Today/Working With a Real Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/trauma-and-hope/201905/working-real-trauma-therapist

 

American Psychological Association/Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET). (2017, July 31).  Retrieved from: https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/treatments/narrative-exposure-therapy

 

Barbash Ph.D., Elyssa. (2019, May 1). Psychology Today/Working With a Real Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/trauma-and-hope/201905/working-real-trauma-therapist

 

Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from:

https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist


Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/


Brinen, Aaron. (2018, June 4). Beck Institute/Trauma Treatment: Evidence Based Approaches versus Intuitive Approaches. Retrieved from: https://beckinstitute.org/trauma-treatment/

 

PSYCHOLOGY SCHOOL GUIDE/How to Become a Trauma Counselor. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/counseling-careers/becoming-a-trauma-counselor/

 

Leonard, Jayne. (2020, June 3). MEDICALNEWSTODAY/What is Trauma? What to Know. Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/trauma#treatment

 

WebMD/Mental Health and Hypnosis. Retrieved from:

https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-hypnotherapy#1

It is strongly advised to work with a therapist that works with trauma exclusively and no other health areas. They should advertise themselves as a trauma psychologist, therapist, or counselor, or a trauma clinic in general.

 

Unfortunately, you have to do your research because there is no state or national regulations for being a trauma-informed therapist. That means there is no specific trauma therapy certification for mental health professionals to obtain. Instead, many trauma therapists should have some certifications in some of the common therapies used (View the section on trauma treatments).

 

Here are some questions to ask your potential therapist:

  1. Educational background, degree, training, professional title? They should consider themselves a “trauma-informed therapist,” have specific trauma training, internship or residency experience, and certifications in trauma-related therapies.
  2. What do they specialize in? The answer should be trauma.
  3. How long have they been working with trauma patients? Use your best judgment here.
  4. What types of patients have they worked with? Make sure if you are seeking therapy for a child, they have primarily worked with children in the past. The same goes for if you are seeking therapy as a veteran, a teen, etc. The types of therapy and the process can be different for kids, adults, teens, or veterans.
  5. What types of therapies do they provide? (see the section on treatments, to make sure they provide the right types of therapy for you).

What Type of Education Should a Certified Trauma Therapist Have?

A trauma psychologist will typically have an undergraduate degree in psychology. Then, they can specialize in trauma counseling with their graduate degree or focus on trauma specific coursesEducation: Psychologist Trauma Therapist

A trauma psychologist will typically have an undergraduate degree in psychology. Then, they can specialize in trauma counseling with their graduate degree or focus on trauma-specific courses. Most psychologists need a doctorate degree in order to practice. There are some schools that offer a focus on trauma psychology for Ph.D. studies (University of Minnesota – Twin Cities, University of Wisconsin – Madison, and University of Washington – Seattle Campus). It is also required to pass a licensing test and complete an internship. The requirement for licensing and education will vary depending on where they practice, but most states require 2,000 – 3,000 hours of supervised experience.

 

Education: Social Worker Trauma Therapist

For a social work trauma therapist, it is required to have a Masters of Social Work, but very few hold a doctorate degree. Every state is different in their requirements for the license and how many hours of fieldwork are required.

 

Education: Counselor Trauma Therapist

 

Similar to a social work trauma therapist, a counselor needs a master’s degree, but in counseling specifically. The license and number of hours doing fieldwork will also depend on the state.


 

 

Psychology School Guide/Trauma Work Therapist Careers. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/therapist-careers/how-to-become-a-trauma-work-therapist/#:~:text=Education,in%20their%20field%20of%20specialty

 

Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from:

https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist

Here are a couple of directories you can use to search for a therapist:

 

Psychology Today

(Go to “Types of Therapy,” select: “Trauma Focused”).

 

Find a Therapist

(Go to Advanced Search, select: “Specialty” and select: “Trauma.”)

 

You can specifically find an EMDR Therapist here: EMDRIA

 

These directories will probably be more effective than just doing a Google search because Google may pull up just any psychologists that list “trauma” on their website. Make sure you find a Certified Trauma Therapist.

Bruhin, Matthew. (2018, May 29). APEX Recovery Rehab/What is Trauma Focused Therapy? Retrieved from: https://apex.rehab/2018/05/29/what-is-trauma-focused-therapy/

 

Healthline/Traumatic Events? Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/traumatic-events#responses-to-trauma

 

Mission Harbor BEHAVIORAL HEALTH/How Does Trauma Therapy Work? Retrieved from: https://sbtreatment.com/program/therapies/trauma-therapy/

 

Psychology Today/Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/trauma-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy

 

American Psychological Association/Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET). (2017, July 31).  Retrieved from: https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/treatments/narrative-exposure-therapy

 

Barbash Ph.D., Elyssa. (2019, May 1). Psychology Today/Working With a Real Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/trauma-and-hope/201905/working-real-trauma-therapist

 

Formichella, Lucien. (2020, May 8). Noodle/How to Become a Trauma Therapist. Retrieved from: https://www.noodle.com/articles/how-to-become-a-trauma-therapist


Fader, Sarah. (2020, October 8). betterhelp/Trauma Therapy What is Trauma Therapy And How Does It Work To Combat Trauma?. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/trauma/what-is-trauma-therapy-and-how-does-it-work/


CENTER FOR CHILD TRAUMA ASSESSMENT, SERVICES and INTERVENTIONS: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Retrieved from: http://cctasi.northwestern.edu/family/trauma-focused-therapy/

 

Brickel MA, LMFT, Robyn E. (2018, February 23). Brickel & Associates, LLC/Why You Need a Trauma-Informed Therapist, Even if You Don’t Think You Have TRAUMA. Retrieved from:

https://brickelandassociates.com/need-trauma-informed-therapist/

 

PSYCHOLOGY SCHOOL GUIDE/How to Become a Trauma Counselor. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/counseling-careers/becoming-a-trauma-counselor/

 

Dillmann PsyD, Susanne. (2011, March 9). GoodTherapy/Common Therapy Approaches to Help You Heal from Trauma. Retrieved from: https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/common-therapy-approaches-to-help-you-heal-from-trauma

 

Leonard, Jayne. (2020, June 3). MEDICALNEWSTODAY/What is Trauma? What to Know. Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/trauma#treatment

 

WebMD/Mental Health and Hypnosis. Retrieved from: https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-hypnotherapy#1

 
 
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